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谈谈电力电子器件强迫风冷中风机的工作点(之三)

文章来源:未知 点击: 次 时间:2015-06-15     打印本页    关闭窗口

  1、引言:上篇文章“谈谈电力电子器件强迫风冷中风机的工作点”中我谈到曾试图用计算得到函数关系式。但认真地阅读了有关与强迫风冷有关的空气动力学内容后知难而退,感到还不如用试验测得数据较为实际,故文章只介绍了试验方法。事后想想,既然已经了解了一点空气动力学有关计算理论,何不再进一步结合电力电子应用的实际,尝试一下流阻的计算方法。为此参考了一些同行中先行者写的计算流阻的文章,写成此文。目的是希望大家共同来研究、讨论并通过大量的实践来验证和完善这个计算方法。更希望搞通风工程、航空器及空气动力学方面的专家们关注到我们的迫切需要,提出完善的计算方法。所以本文只是一种“抛砖引玉”之举,预计不会有实用价值。需要说明的是平时关注较少,如有电力电子同行知道已有实用文章和计算方法,请积极推荐,在此深表感谢。

  2、为了进行实际计算,现对散热器和风道的实际尺寸作一标定,见【图一】散热器剖面图。

  2.1 预选风机为EBM公司2D420型轴流风机,风机风圈直径Φ0.447m

  风道中各通风截面尺寸如下:

  A1 = 0.64 m×0.36 m = 0.23 m2,

  A2 = A1 – 散热器截面积 = 0.23-0.2×0.165×6×68% = 0.23 – 0.135 = 0.095 m2, A3 = A1

  风机风圈通风面积A4 = pR2= 3.14×0.22352 = 0.157 m2

  

【图一】散热器剖面图,兰色部分未被散热器阻挡,可通风,其面积为A2

 

  

【图一】散热器剖面图,兰色部分未被散热器阻挡,可通风,其面积为A2

 

  【图一】散热器剖面图,兰色部分未被散热器阻挡,可通风,其面积为A2

  从这剖面图可看到在风道内布满铝(或铜)制的散热器(片),散热器翅片之间小空隙(约3-10mm不等)顺着风流动的方向,这部分就是风道的通风截面A2 。散热器长度 最长可达0.5米以上。于是有个疑问,这能和空调系统中送(回)风管道相比吗?空调系统中风管是空的,只存在风管截面由大变小、由小变大、由一管分叉变多管或弯道等情况。两者的风阻计算理论是一样的吗?出于探讨,这里还是使用了空调风管阻力的计算方法。而且只考虑了主要的阻力成分。

  2.2 每截面风速:

  

每截面风速

 

  计算风机风量为V1 = 1000m 3/h、V2 = 3000 m 3/h 、V3 = 5000 m 3/h 时的 各截面的风速w1、w2、w3、w4

  表一

  

风速表

 

  2.3 散热器参数

  散热器高 = 0.3 m ,散热器截面边周长 S = 27.6 m

  3、流阻计算和作“风量—流阻曲线”

  代入上面导出的计算式:

  

公式

 

  或

  

公式

 

  得出风量为1000 m 3/h、3000 m 3/h、5000 m 3/h时的流阻 ∆P 值,用此数据就可在风机工作曲线图上画出第二种曲线,交点即为其工作点。

  表二

  

风速表

 

  

【图二】2D420型轴流风机工作曲线

 

  【图二】2D420型轴流风机工作曲线

  4、结论:

  4.1 工作点G处,风量为:4300 m 3/h,工作时流阻为:52Pa 。换算进风口A1风速为5.2 m/S 。

  4.2 本文选用散热器长为0.3 m ,从该散热器热阻曲线上查得当风速5.2 m/S时热阻

  Rth = 0.03 ℃/W 。所选晶闸管工作时需每只120°导通角1000A长期通电,算得此时自身发热功率损耗P = 1600W,散热器温升:

  △T = Rth×P = 0.03℃/W×1600W = 48 ℃

  应该说这个温升有点偏高,需要选择一台风量再大一点的风机较为合适。

  4.3 风机的最大风压范围合适。

  【附录】有用的单位换算表

  

有用的单位换算表

 

  编者简介:朱英文:(1939- ),高级工程师,现任北京京仪椿树整流器有限责任公司技术顾问,中国电力电子产业网特约顾问,主要研究电力半导体器件的设计、制造、应用中的热设计和电力半导体器件主回路结构设计。曾参与专业词典、书籍的编写、翻译等工作。主要成果有:“无刷励磁发电机用旋转整流管设计和制造”,“晶闸管芯片球面磨角工艺”“大功率半导体器件用散热器风冷热阻计算方法”等。


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